CIA 탄생에 공헌한 미국 역사가들... Le monde

미국 CIA 개혁과 처치 위원회 The Church Committee



CIA의 전신인 전략정보국 OSS의 탄생에 2명의 역사학자가 결정적으로 공헌했다는 것은 주지하는 바와 같다. 하버드 대학의 윌리엄 랭거  William L. Langer와 예일대의 셔먼 켄트 Sherman Kent 가 바로 그들이었다.

특히 예일대 사학과 출신 역사가들의 공헌이 결정적이었다고 하고, 그 덕분에 다수의 예일대 사학과 졸업생들이 CIA에서 일을 할 수 있었다고 한다.

하버드 대학 사학과 교수 윌리엄 랭거  William L. Langer 는 바로 도노반의 전략정보국에서 정보분석업무를 발전시키는데 공헌했다. 미국이 제2차세계대전에 개입하자, 랭거는 미국정부로부터 새롭게 창설된 전략정보국 Office of Strategic Services (OSS) 에서 일해달라는 요청을 받고, 암호명 OSS 117로 일했다. 랭거는 전략정보국의 연구분석실 실장 chief of Research and Analysis Branch 으로 일했다. 전후에 그는 국무장관 제임스 번스의 정보분석 특별보좌관으로 일했다. 1950년, 랭거는 새로 탄생한 미국 중앙정보국 CIA 에서 국가정보평가실 the office of National Estimates  을 만들었다. 랭거는 이후 학계로 복귀했지만, 1961년부터 1977년까지, 대통령을 위한 해외정보자문위원회 위원으로 활동했다.

전후에 랭거가 학계로 돌아가자, 예일대 사학과 교수인 셔먼 켄트 Sherman Kent 가 CIA의 정보분석 및 생산 부서의 지휘를 맡았다. 켄트는 오늘날까지도 유지되는 국가정보평가체계를 개발했다. 셔먼 켄트는 미국 정보분석의 아버지라는 평가를 받는다.

이렇게 미국정보기관의 초기 역사에서, 정보분석 방법을 만드는데 두 명의 미국 역사학자인 윌리엄 랭거와 셔먼 켄트가 결정적인 공헌을 했던 것이다. 

그런데, 로빈 윙크스에 따르면, 제2차세계대전 동안 많은 역사가들이 전략정보국에서 일했고, 미국 정보기관의 틀을 만드는 데 공헌했다고 한다.

이후 역사학계의 대가가 될 사람들이 다수 포함되어 있었다.

고든 크래그 Gordon Craig- 외교사

존 페어뱅크 John K. Fairbank- 중국사의 대가

펠릭스 길버트 Felix Gilbert- 외교사, 프린스턴 대학 사학과

홀본 Hajo Holborn-예일대 사학과, 마이네케의 제자

허버트 마르쿠제 Herbert Marcuse- 프랑크푸르트 학파의 대가

아서 슐레진저 Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr- 하버드 대학, 미국 역사협회 회장, 케네디 대통령의 보좌관

등등...

더 긴 명단은 다음과 같다.

James Phinney Baxter III, president of Williams College;

Carl Blegen, professor of history, University of Cincinnati, and a leading authority on American immigration and ethnic history;

Crane Brinton, professor of history, Harvard University, perhaps the leading historian of ideas on the European front;

Dr. Frederick Burkhardt, director of the American Council of Learned Societies;

John Christopher, professor of history, University of Rochester, who with Brinton and Robert Lee Wolff wrote an extremely influential (and extremely successful) textbook, History of Civilization, immediately after the war, a text which became one of two that dominated the market for the immediate postwar generation of undergraduate students. Brinton, Christopher and Wolff, as the text was known, reflected the synoptic view the authors developed while in the OSS, and it would not be totally revised until 1983;

Dr. Ray Cline, who wrote a first-rate volume in the official history of World War II and then returned to the intelligence profession. He became the CIA's deputy director for intelligence from 1962 to 1966;

John Clive, professor of history, Harvard University, a major figure in nineteenth-century British studies;

Gordon Craig, professor of history, Princeton and later Stanford universities, author of the leading books on the role of the military in German history;

John Curtiss, professor of history, Duke University, an authority on France;

Harold C. Deutsch, professor of history, University of Minnesota, also an important figure in the development of modern German history in the United States;

Donald M. Dozer, professor of history, University of California, Santa Barbara, a Latin Americanist;

Dr. Allan Evans, a medievalist from Yale who remained with the Department of State after R&A was transferred to State at the end of the war;

John K. Fairbank, professor of Chinese history at Harvard University, the leading sinologist of his generation;

Franklin L. Ford, professor of history, Harvard University, and the dean of Harvard College during the student disorders of the late 1960s;

Felix Gilbert, historian at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey, an elegant diplomatist;

S. Everett Gleason, who worked with William Langer in the OSS and after, and returned to become the State Department's historian;

Moses Hadas, professor of classics, Columbia University, who wrote on the expansion of the Roman Empire;

Samuel W. Halperin, professor of history, University of Chicago, and after the war editor of the Journal of Modern History;

Henry B. Hill, professor of history, University of Kansas, who developed British history there and later at Wisconsin;

Hajo Holborn, Sterling Professor of History, Yale University, who worked on occupation policy for Germany at the end of the war and wrote on the history of military occupation, becoming a dominant figure in the training of postwar Germanists;

H. Stuart Hughes, professor of history, Harvard University, who moved on from where Crane Brinton had left off in European intellectual (and especially Italian) history, and unsuccessfully ran for the House of Representatives in Massachusetts;

Sherman Kent, who left Yale to preside over ONE, the Office of National Estimates, at the CIA;

Clinton Knox, who also left the historical profession, becoming ambassador to Guinea;

Leonard Krieger, who returned from the OSS to become a professor at Yale and then of German intellectual history at the University of Chicago;

William L. Langer, the outstanding European diplomatic historian of his generation;

Val Lorwin, professor of history, University of Oregon, and the nation's leading authority on the Low Countries;

Herbert Marcuse, who moved from history to philosophy at Brandeis and the University of California, and from the contemplative life to that of guru to the student revolt during the war in Vietnam;

Henry Cord Meyer, professor of history, Pomona College, another leading Germanist who left Yale for the West Coast;

Saul K. Padover, professor at the New School for Social Research, authority on Jefferson and democratic thought, and a pioneer lecturer on American history at a wide range of universities overseas;

Michael B. Petrovich, professor of history, University of Wisconsin, who developed Russian studies there;

David H. Pinckney, professor of history, first at the University of Missouri and then the University of Washington, a major force in French history and, like Brinton, Craig, Fairbank, Holborn, Langer, and Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., a president of the American Historical Association, perhaps the highest honor the discipline can bestow on one of its own;

David M. Potter, professor of history, Yale University (and later at Stanford), who with Ralph Gabriel and Norman Holmes Pearson firmly established American studies at Yale;

Conyers Read, professor of history, University of Pennsylvania, an authority on Elizabethan England and the prime mover behind the Council on Foreign Relations in Philadelphia;

Henry L. Roberts, professor of history, Columbia University, who followed Geroid Robinson, also of R&A, in developing a front-rank Russian studies program at that institution;

Elspeth D. Rostow, University of Texas, who with her husband, Walt Whitman Rostow, worked out major interpretations on American foreign policy;

John E. Sawyer, economic historian who left Yale to become president of Williams College and then of the Mellon Foundation;

Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., professor of history, Harvard University, polymath, adviser to and historian for the Kennedys before his translation to a Schweitzer chair at the City University of New York;

Bernadotte E. Schmitt, who after the war lived in retirement, lauded as the leading revisionist historian of the causes of World War I;

Carl E. Schorske, professor of history at Wesleyan and then Princeton University, an authority on European intellectual history;

Raymond Sontag, professor of history, University of California at Berkeley, the first of the old OSS team to publicly remind the student generation of the 1960s of his service and of why academics had felt it appropriate to engage in intelligence work, which he had continued to do as a consultant to ONE;

L. S. Stavrianos, professor of history, Northwestern University, who carried the idea of global history further than any other scholar, in a series of notable texts;

Richard P. Stebbins, a man Sherman Kent felt could turn out more work of high quality than anyone else in his shop, who became director of the Council on Foreign Relations;

Paul R. Sweet, who also remained with the State Department, in charge of its official histories and archives;

Alexander Vucinich, professor of history, San Jose State University, a leading authority on Eastern Europe;

Wayne S. Vucinich, professor of history, Stanford University, who covered the same waterfront;

Paul L. Ward, who became the executive director of the American Historical Association;

Albert Weinberg, technically a political scientist, although the author of a fine historical analysis of American imperial expansion, who remained in government work after the war;

Robert Lee Wolff, professor of history, Harvard University, that institution's outstanding authority on Eastern Europe;

John H. Wuorinen, professor of history, Columbia University, who covered Scandinavia and in particular Finland;

T. Cuyler Young, professor of archaeology, Princeton University, who with Richard Frye at Harvard, who also was in the OSS, pioneered Iranian studies in the United States.



덧글

  • 레이오트 2016/03/17 12:48 # 답글

    그런데 정작 그런 시대의 흐름을 볼 줄 아는 엘리트의 집단인 CIA는 시대의 흐름을 보지못하는데서 비롯된 각종 삽질로 이제는 B급 영화에서도 잘 다루지않으려는 조롱의 대상이 되었지요.

    그런데 CIA 입장에서도 억울한게 제2차 세계대전 당시 OSS가 보여준 전설 아닌 레전드급 활약상 때문에 미국 정부는 정보분석이 본업인 CIA에게 준군사작전이라는 이름의 무력개입을 요구하게 되었고 이런쪽 공작은 전문분야가 아닌 CIA에게는 재난의 시작이었죠.
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